Vaccinations: Very inexpensive (to ensure cattle health). Backhoes: Very expensive (to dig hole and bury an animal). We vaccinate everything twice a year, spring and fall. Including injectible de-wormers and insecticide ear tags for external flies and parasites. Of course, Vet only authorized Brucellosis vaccinations too (State/Federal Law). Clean quarters, uncrowded pens and areas, quality stock to begin with, quality hay, salt, minerals, and water. "Ounce of Prevention = Pound of Cure." Any new stock brought into our place is isolated and watched for a while prior to integrating with our existing herd. Any out-of-state arrivals must have Vet's Health Certificate and Negative TB test. We also wash out our trailers after any haul we do.