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I recently witnessed three cows that were diagnosed as being calcium deficient by a local vet. These cows had body trembling, paralysis in the back end, and would not get up again days after being treated with a calcium IV. The feeds have been tested and are more than adequate with calcium for cows in their third trimester, even post calving. No known antagonist in the water. All other responses from the cows appear to be normal. What else could this be?

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It could be low calcium or even phosphorus. A quick primer on calcium metabolism, which I should be fairly accurate but not exact on....

When a cow is receiving lots of calcium in her feed in her dry period (I'm assuming dairy here) she will decrease her absorption of calcium. Then when it comes to calving, with the sudden requirement for calcium, her system is unable to absorb the required amounts, even though the feed is adequate or better. Also, acid/base balance and exact buffers present (I won't get into that in detail) will affect the absorption. I'm sure there are university nutrition sites with information. Another site which often has info is Ontario Minsitry of Agriculture and Food and Rural Affairs (aka OMAFRA or OMAF) which you can check on google.com for.... just ask if this isn't what you're looking for.
which is why dry cattle, whether dairy or beef, should always be fed a slightly lower calcium diet. anothe possibility would be to give the calcium "free choice", from licking blocks instead of mixing it with some mineral additive.

we call this phenomenon "calving desease" in belgium.

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