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usf says citrus pellets are second only to corn

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dieselbeef

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CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Experimental results and observations warrant the following conclusions and recommendations for use of some citrus by-products in dairy cattle feeds.

Citrus pulp has no properties other than its nutrient content, which limits its use in dairy cattle concentrate rations. Thus, it may be used at any level at which it can be included without causing a nutritional imbalance. One must remember, however, that this requires special attention to the calcium-phosphorous ratios, which are extremely wide in citrus pulp because of the calcium added during processing. A level of 40% of the total ration is feasible.

Citrus pulp is not a roughage and cannot be so used even in diets for small calves.

Citrus pulp, although a concentrate, has roughage-sparing qualities. Thus, because of its tendency to keep acetate levels and pH in the rumen high, it tends to prevent low milkfat and metabolic problems on fiber-deficient rations.

Factors other than the rumenal production of acetate appear to be involved in production of abnormal milk on rations lacking in roughage, and in these cases, citrus pulp may help but cannot entirely prevent low milkfat tests.

Pelleting does not change the nutritional properties of citrus pulp, probably because grinding is not necessary. Thus, after the pellets are soaked in rumenal fluid, they expand, and so their physical properties are not much different from conventional pulp under similar circumstances.

When citrus pulp is added to forage at ensiling, it has three desirable effects: (a) extra energy becomes available; (b) nutrient containing juices are absorbed, and thus their loss is prevented; and (c) a desirable medium for bacterial fermentation is supplied.

Citrus pulp is a good ingredient in rations for calves from two months of age but not always for younger ones. It is highly acceptable to older animals, but it depresses feed intake of young calves when used to replace cottonseed hulls or to supplement them.

Citrus pulp is highiy compatible with urea in cattle rations and thus in rations containing urea, it may be used in about the same way as is corn.

Except for small calves, citrus pulp is a positive factor in acceptability, since cattle like it, and it tends to mask undesirable flavors such as that of urea.

Citrus pulp is a good source of energy as such, and it appears to interact with some other feedstuffs in a way which makes both more digestible. It is not a good source of protein, but it does complement protein utilization of some other feedstuffs.

Citrus molasses is somewhat different from cane molasses, but in general it may be used for the same purposes and in about the same way as by-product molasses from other industies.

Citrus molasses distillers solubles at 6% of the total diet promotes digestion, a favorable type of fermentation, and the proper rumenal environment for utilization of other ingredients, including non-protein nitrogen. This feedstuff is an excellent source of protein, probably because of residual yeast. There is no significant effect on milkfat, milk protein, or on body weight changes. It appears that the effect on milk production results at least in part by stimulation of appetite by the distillers solubles.
 

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