REPORT ON THE INVESTIGATION OF THE FIFTEENTH CASE BSE CANADA

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REPORT ON THE INVESTIGATION OF THE FIFTEENTH CASE OF BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (BSE) IN CANADA

BACKGROUND

On November 3, 2008, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) sampled a Holstein cow under Canada's National BSE Surveillance Program. Brain samples were received by the British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture and Lands (BCMAL) Laboratory, where they were screened for BSE using a Prionics rapid test. The result of this preliminary test did not rule out BSE. In accordance with the prescribed testing protocol, the test was repeated and produced a reaction a second time. Brain samples were then sent to the National BSE Reference Laboratory in Lethbridge, Alberta. Additional testing for BSE (Prionics-Check PrioStrip, BioRad TeSeE ELISA, Prionics-Check Western and Hybrid Western Blot) was conducted at the National BSE Reference Laboratory to validate the result of the screening test and was positive on Nov 6, 2008. The Scrapie Associated Fibril Immunoblot procedure was positive on Nov 7, 2008 and the immunohistochemistry procedure was positive on Nov 14, 2008. The carcass was secured at the sampling site and will subsequently be transferred to CFIA's Lethbridge laboratory for incineration. No part of the carcass entered the human food supply or animal feed chain.

The CFIA immediately initiated an epidemiological investigation based on the recommended BSE guidelines (Terrestrial Animal Health Code 2008) of the World Organisation for Animal Health, referred to as the OIE. Specifically, the CFIA followed the recommended BSE guidelines for a country with controlled risk status and investigated:

the feed cohort, comprising all cattle which, during their first year of life, were reared with the BSE case during its first year of life, and which investigation showed consumed the same potentially contaminated feed during that period, or the birth cohort, comprising all cattle born in the same herd as, and within 12 months of the birth of the BSE case, if the above cannot be identified and feed to which the animal may have been exposed early in its life. ANIMAL INVESTIGATION The positive animal was a registered Holstein dairy cow born on January 1, 2001, and it was 94 months of age at the time of death. The animal was born, raised and had spent its entire life on the same farm. The producer reported the duration of illness as less than 2 days with the animal exhibiting an abnormal gait (locomotion, change in movement), which was worse on the hind end. The animal had a short stunted gait and exhibited signs of ataxia (uncoordinated movements). The producer elected to have the animal humanely destroyed. Since the inclusion criteria of Canada's National BSE Surveillance Program were met, arrangements were made to forward appropriate samples for laboratory evaluation.

The birth farm was a dairy operation located in the Fraser Valley area of British Columbia. The feed cohort was determined to comprise 187 animals, which along with the case animal, were raised on the farm. This cohort consisted of female Holsteins. Males sold at less than two weeks of age for fattening and subsequent slaughter without having access to any commercially prepared feeds were excluded from the investigation because they were not exposed to the same potentially contaminated feed as the case animal. No males were retained or raised on the farm. The trace-out investigation of the feed cohort located 22 live animals on the case farm. These animals are quarantined and will be humanely destroyed; their carcasses disposed of by incineration in accordance with the OIE recommendations. The following is the disposition of the remaining animals in the feed cohort:

122 animals were traced and confirmed to have died or been slaughtered; 24 animals were traced and presumed to have died or been slaughtered; 5 animals were traced and confirmed to have been exported for slaughter and the importing country has been notified; and 14 animals were determined to be untraceable because of records limitations. FEED INVESTIGATION The feed investigation focused on feeds to which the case animal may have had access during its first year of life and on the manufacturing practices used to produce these feeds.

All feed products to which the BSE case animal had access were intended for feeding to ruminants. These consisted of farm-grown and purchased forages and silages and mixed feed products provided to the farm from one commercial supplier. On-farm mixing equipment consisted of a mixer wagon used to combine forages with commercial products for calves, heifers and lactating cows. Several cats on the farm were fed in the barn and one dog was fed in the house away from the dairy operation. It is reasonable to presume that the cat and dog food did contain prohibited material; however, review of farm feeding practices confirmed that ruminants did not have access to these feeds.

For the first three weeks of life, the case animal was housed individually in a calf pen and fed milk and a commercially prepared calf ration. From 3 to 9 weeks the animal was housed in a series of group pens with animals of similar age and continued to be fed calf ration and milk as well as hay and had access to two kinds of mineral blocks. From 9 weeks to 12 months the animal continued to cycle through several group pens with animals of similar age and continued to be fed calf ration, hay and farm grown corn and grass silages as well as having access to two kinds of mineral blocks. Additionally, a dry cow mineral was added to the animal's diet at the 3 month stage.

The only other commercial feed products used on the farm included a complete ration for the lactating cows and a dry cow ration. On-farm investigation confirmed that the lactation ration was not fed to the case animal prior to twelve months of age, however, the same on-farm mixer wagon was used to mix rations for both the case animal and the lactating cows. It was also determined that the case animal could not have access to the dry cow ration which was received, stored and fed directly from bags and away from animals less than one year of age.

Investigation at the commercial feed manufacturer, which was the sole supplier of calf ration and lactation ration, identified that this facility handled prohibited material. Components of this facility were dedicated to the manufacture of feeds not containing prohibited material in the formula. However, bulk ingredient receiving and finished feed conveyances were cross-utilized. Written procedures and production records were insufficient to rule out possible contamination with prohibited material at these points affecting both ration types delivered to the case farm.

Investigation at the commercial feed supplier identified that the two kinds of mineral blocks were manufactured by a separate facility, independent of the main commercial feed manufacturer. Investigation at the manufacturer of these blocks determined that this facility did handle prohibited material during the period of interest; however, no written procedures or production records were available. As the period of interest occurs after the introduction of the 1997 Mammalian Feed Ban, it is unlikely that ruminant meat and bone meal was intentionally used in the formulation of either of these mineral blocks. However, as production records are not available for review, it is not possible to rule out the possibility that contamination during production could have taken place.

The dry cow mineral used on farm was obtained from a specialized facility not handling prohibited material and was packaged in bags. This product was ruled out as a possible source of contamination.

Considering the farm's feeding regime and specific production records reviewed, a likely source of exposure to BSE infectivity appears to be potentially contaminated heifer ration. However, the risk associated with possible ingestion of small amounts of the lactation ration and either of the mineral blocks exists, and potential contamination of these products cannot be ruled out.

INVESTIGATION OVERVIEW The detection of this case does not change any of Canada's BSE risk parameters. The location and age of the animal are consistent with previous cases. Surveillance results to date, including this case, reflect an extremely low level of BSE in Canada.

Since the confirmation of BSE in a native-born animal in May 2003, Canada has significantly increased its targeted testing of cattle in high-risk categories advocated by the OIE (including non-ambulatory animals). This effort is directed at determining the level of BSE in Canada, while monitoring the effectiveness of the risk-mitigating measures in place. Canada's National BSE Surveillance Program continues to demonstrate an extremely low level of BSE in Canada, with 15 positive animals detected.

With respect to BSE, the safety of beef produced in Canada is assured by public health measures enacted in 2003. The removal of specific risk material (SRM) - the tissues that have been demonstrated to have the potential to harbour BSE infectivity - from all animals slaughtered for human consumption is the most effective single measure to protect consumers in Canada and importing countries from exposure to BSE infectivity in meat products.

As demonstrated by the surveillance system, the feed ban implemented in 1997 is effectively preventing the amplification of BSE in Canada's feed system. Additional regulations to enhance Canada's feed ban were enacted in 2007. The most important change is the removal of SRM from all animal feeds, pet food and fertilizer. The enhancement will accelerate progress toward eradicating BSE from the national cattle herd by preventing more than 99 per cent of potential BSE infectivity from entering the Canadian feed system. These measures are effectively minimizing the risk of BSE transmission.

Canada is officially categorized under the OIE's science-based system as a controlled BSE risk country. This status clearly recognizes the effectiveness of Canada's surveillance, mitigation and eradication measures, and acknowledges the work done by all levels of government, the cattle industry, veterinarians and ranchers to effectively manage and eventually eradicate BSE in Canada.

http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/ani ... este.shtml


REPORT ON THE INVESTIGATION OF THE FOURTEENTH CASE OF BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (BSE) IN CANADA


BACKGROUND On July 25, 2008 a commercial beef cow in Northern Alberta was sampled by a private practitioner under Canada's National BSE Surveillance Program. Brain samples from this animal were sent to the Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development (ARD) laboratory where they were screened for BSE using a Bio-Rad rapid test on August 6, 2008. The result of this preliminary test did not rule out BSE. In accordance with the prescribed testing protocol, the test was repeated and produced a reaction a second time. Brain samples were then sent to the National BSE Reference Laboratory in Lethbridge, Alberta. Additional rapid tests for BSE (Prionics-Check PrioStrip and BioRad TeSeE ELISA) were conducted at the National BSE Reference Laboratory to validate the result of the screening test and were positive on August 12, 2008. The Prionics-Check Western and the Hybrid Western Blot was positive on August 14, 2008. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy was confirmed on August 14, 2008 using the Scrapie Associated Fibril Immunoblot procedure. The carcass was secured at the sampling site. No part of the carcass entered the human food supply or animal feed chain.

The CFIA immediately initiated an epidemiological investigation based on the recommended BSE guidelines (Terrestrial Animal Health Code 2008) of the World Organisation for Animal Health, referred to as the OIE. Specifically, the CFIA followed the recommended BSE guidelines for a country with controlled risk status and investigated:

the feed cohort, comprising all cattle which, during their first year of life, were reared with the BSE case during its first year of life, and which investigation showed consumed the same potentially contaminated feed during that period, or the birth cohort, comprising all cattle born in the same herd as, and within 12 months of the birth of the BSE case, if the above cannot be identified and feed to which the animal may have been exposed early in its life. ANIMAL INVESTIGATION The positive animal was a commercial beef cow, Gelbvieh cross, born on March 20, 2002 and it was 76 months of age at the time of death. The animal was born, raised and had spent its entire life on the same farm. The producer reported the duration of illness as approximately 6 months with the animal exhibiting gradual deterioration culminating in the animal becoming non-ambulatory (downer). During this period, the animal showed a change in behaviour resulting in the animal becoming apprehensive/nervous. When examined by a private practitioner on July 25, 2008, the animal was recumbent. Physical examination by the practitioner revealed opisthotonus (muscle spasms). The practitioner and producer determined that the animal should be euthanized . A post-mortem examination was conducted, and the kidneys were observed to be smaller than normal with a thickened adherent capsule. A presumptive diagnosis of chronic renal disease was made by the submitting practitioner. Since the inclusion criteria of Canada’s National BSE Surveillance Program were met, arrangements were made to forward appropriate samples for laboratory evaluation.

The birth farm was a commercial beef cow-calf operation. The birth cohort was determined to comprise 72 animals, which along with the case animal, were raised on the farm. Due to the practice of animals being sold in lots from the case premises, 106 animals (including the 72 birth cohorts) were traced. The trace-out investigation of the birth cohort located 6 live animals on the case farm and 3 live animals on a subsequent premises. All of these animals have since been humanely destroyed; their carcasses disposed of by incineration in accordance with the OIE recommendations. The following is the disposition of the remaining animals in the 97 animals:

80 animals were traced and confirmed to have died or been slaughtered, 14 animals were traced and presumed to have died or been slaughtered, 3 animals were determined to be untraceable because of records limitations. FEED INVESTIGATION The feed investigation yielded limited records specific to the animal’s first year of life. All feed products to which the BSE case animal had access were intended for feeding to ruminants.

Routine feeding practices were to provide animals with pasture during the summer months and to provide additional hay and grain during the winter. It was not farm practice to supplement the diets with commercially prepared rations, however due to drought conditions during the animal’s first year of life, three commercially prepared rations were provided in addition to the commonly fed forages, grains, salt and minerals.

For the first seven months of life, the case animal was housed in a cow-calf pen and had pasture access. During this period, the animal received cow’s milk and calf starter and had access to loose mineral, salt blocks and pasture. Beyond seven months to the end of the first year of life, the animal was housed in a calf pen where it received a creep feed, feedlot starter and possibly grain and straw and had access to salt blocks.

The three commercial rations made available to the BSE case animal consisted of a calf starter, a creep feed and a feedlot starter which were manufactured by two different commercial feed manufacturers.

Two forms of salt were used on farm: salt blocks and loose mineral salt. The salt blocks were manufactured by a company which does not handle any prohibited material. The loose mineral salt was manufactured by one of the same facilities which manufactured two of the commercially prepared rations received by the farm.

Neither of the two commercial feed manufacturers has production records dating back to the period of interest. As a result, trace back inspections at the manufacturers of commercial feeds distributed to the birth farm did not yield mixing formulas for the period of interest. As this was subsequent to the implementation of the 1997 Mammalian Feed Ban, it is very unlikely that ruminant meat and bone meal was intentionally used in the formulation of any of the three commercially prepared rations or loose mineral salt distributed to the birth farm.

However, as production records are not available for review, it is not possible to rule out that contamination during production could have taken place. One of the two commercial feed manufacturers did handle ruminant meat and bone meal (prohibited material/PM), however they did have procedures in place to prevent the contamination of ruminant feed with PM. The other commercial feed manufacturer did not handle PM directly, though they did receive a premix used in the manufacture of one of the feeds received by the case farm, from another facility which did handle PM.

INVESTIGATION OVERVIEW The detection of this case does not change any of Canada’s BSE risk parameters. The location and age of the animal are consistent with previous cases. Surveillance results to date, including this case, reflect an extremely low level of BSE in Canada.

Since the confirmation of BSE in a native-born animal in May 2003, Canada has significantly increased its targeted testing of cattle in high-risk categories advocated by the OIE (including non-ambulatory animals). This effort is directed at determining the level of BSE in Canada, while monitoring the effectiveness of the risk-mitigating measures in place. Canada’s National BSE Surveillance Program continues to demonstrate an extremely low level of BSE in Canada, with 14 positive animals detected.

With respect to BSE, the safety of beef produced in Canada is assured by public health measures enacted in 2003. The removal of specific risk material (SRM) - the tissues that have been demonstrated to have the potential to harbour BSE infectivity - from all animals slaughtered for human consumption is the most effective single measure to protect consumers in Canada and importing countries from exposure to BSE infectivity in meat products.

As demonstrated by the surveillance system, the feed ban implemented in 1997 is effectively preventing the amplification of BSE in Canada's feed system. Additional regulations to enhance Canada's feed ban were enacted in 2007. The most important change is the removal of SRM from all animal feeds, pet food and fertilizer. The enhancement will accelerate progress toward eradicating BSE from the national cattle herd by preventing more than 99 per cent of potential BSE infectivity from entering the Canadian feed system. These measures are effectively minimizing the risk of BSE transmission.

Canada is officially categorized under the OIE's science-based system as a controlled BSE risk country. This status clearly recognizes the effectiveness of Canada's surveillance, mitigation and eradication measures, and acknowledges the work done by all levels of government, the cattle industry, veterinarians and ranchers to effectively manage and eventually eradicate BSE in Canada.



http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/ani ... este.shtml



P26

TRANSMISSION OF ATYPICAL BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (BSE) IN HUMANIZED MOUSE MODELS

Liuting Qing1, Fusong Chen1, Michael Payne1, Wenquan Zou1, Cristina Casalone2, Martin Groschup3, Miroslaw Polak4, Maria Caramelli2, Pierluigi Gambetti1, Juergen Richt5*, and Qingzhong Kong1 1Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA; 2CEA, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale, Italy; 3Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Germany; 4National Veterinary Research Institute, Poland; 5Kansas State University, Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology Department, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA. *Previous address: USDA National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA 50010, USA

Classical BSE is a world-wide prion disease in cattle, and the classical BSE strain (BSE-C) has led to over 200 cases of clinical human infection (variant CJD). Two atypical BSE strains, BSE-L (also named BASE) and BSE-H, have been discovered in three continents since 2004. The first case of naturally occurring BSE with mutated bovine PrP gene (termed BSE-M) was also found in 2006 in the USA. The transmissibility and phenotypes of these atypical BSE strains/isolates in humans were unknown. We have inoculated humanized transgenic mice with classical and atypical BSE strains (BSE-C, BSE-L, BSE-H) and the BSE-M isolate. We have found that the atypical BSE-L strain is much more virulent than the classical BSE-C. The atypical BSE-H strain is also transmissible in the humanized transgenic mice with distinct phenotype, but no transmission has been observed for the BSE-M isolate so far.

III International Symposium on THE NEW PRION BIOLOGY: BASIC SCIENCE, DIAGNOSIS AND THERAPY 2 - 4 APRIL 2009, VENEZIA (ITALY)

http://www.istitutoveneto.it/prion_09/Abstracts_09.pdf

Research Project: GENETIC AND BIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF RESPIRATORY DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY Location: Animal Health Systems Research

Title: Association of a bovine prion gene haplotype with atypical BSE

Author

Clawson, Michael

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract Publication Type: Abstract Publication Acceptance Date: December 2, 2008 Publication Date: January 1, 2009 Citation: Clawson, M.L. 2009. Association of a bovine prion gene haplotype with atypical BSE [abstract]. Plant and Animal Genomes XVII Conference. Abstract No. W091. Available: http://www.intl-pag.org/17/abstracts/

Technical Abstract: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), also known as prion diseases, are a class of fatal neurodegenerative disorders that occur in humans, ruminants, cats, and mink. Three distinct TSEs afflict cattle: classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), atypical H-type BSE, and atypical L-type BSE. Classical BSE was identified in the 1980s and is acquired by cattle through the consumption of feed contaminated with the infectious prion agent. Atypical BSEs have only recently been recognized as distinct cattle prion diseases and are extremely rare. The full extent of genetic susceptibilities to atypical BSEs is unknown; however, one atypical H-type case identified in the United States (2006) was most likely caused by a genetic mutation in the prion gene, E211K. We have identified an association of a bovine prion DNA haplotype with atypical BSE that is independent of E211K. The haplotype spans a portion of the prion gene that includes part of intron 2, the entire coding region of exon 3, and part of the three prime untranslated region of exon 3 (13 kb). Despite the low frequency of this haplotype among general cattle populations, it was present in a majority of H- and L-type atypical BSE cases from Canada, France, and the United States. This result indicates that there is a genetic component to atypical BSE susceptibility in addition to E211K.

http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/public ... 115=234699

I ask Professor Kong ;

Thursday, December 04, 2008 3:37 PM Subject: RE: re--Chronic Wating Disease (CWD) and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathies (BSE): Public Health Risk Assessment

''IS the h-BSE more virulent than typical BSE as well, or the same as cBSE, or less virulent than cBSE? just curious.....''

Professor Kong reply ;

.....snip

''As to the H-BSE, we do not have sufficient data to say one way or another, but we have found that H-BSE can infect humans. I hope we could publish these data once the study is complete. Thanks for your interest.''

Best regards, Qingzhong Kong, PhD Associate Professor Department of Pathology Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, OH 44106 USA

END...TSS

I look forward to further transmission studies, and a true ENHANCED BSE/atypical BSE surveillance program put forth testing all cattle for human and animal consumption for 5 years. a surveillance program that uses the most sensitive TSE testing, and has the personnel that knows how to use them, and can be trusted. I look forward to a stringent mad cow feed ban being put forth, and then strictly enforced. we need a forced, not voluntary feed ban, an enhanced feed ban at that, especially excluding blood. we need some sort of animal traceability. no more excuses about privacy. if somebody is putting out a product that is killing folks and or has the potential to kill you, then everybody needs to know who they are, and where that product came from. same with hospitals, i think medical incidents in all states should be recorded, and made public, when it comes to something like a potential accidental transmission exposure event. so if someone is out there looking at a place to go have surgery done, if you have several hospitals having these type 'accidental exposure events', than you can go some place else. it only makes sense. somewhere along the road, the consumer lost control, and just had to take whatever they were given, and then charged these astronomical prices. some where along the line the consumer just lost interest, especially on a long incubating disease such as mad cow disease i.e. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy. like i said before, there is much more to the mad cow story than bovines and eating a hamburger, we must start focusing on all TSE in all species. ...TSS

Month Number of Tests

Feb 2009 -- 1,891

Jan 2009 -- 4,620

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/newsroom/hot_ ... ults.shtml

P02.35

Molecular Features of the Protease-resistant Prion Protein (PrPres) in H-type BSE

Biacabe, A-G1; Jacobs, JG2; Gavier-Widén, D3; Vulin, J1; Langeveld, JPM2; Baron, TGM1 1AFSSA, France; 2CIDC-Lelystad, Netherlands; 3SVA, Sweden

Western blot analyses of PrPres accumulating in the brain of BSE-infected cattle have demonstrated 3 different molecular phenotypes regarding to the apparent molecular masses and glycoform ratios of PrPres bands. We initially described isolates (H-type BSE) essentially characterized by higher PrPres molecular mass and decreased levels of the diglycosylated PrPres band, in contrast to the classical type of BSE. This type is also distinct from another BSE phenotype named L-type BSE, or also BASE (for Bovine Amyloid Spongiform Encephalopathy), mainly characterized by a low representation of the diglycosylated PrPres band as well as a lower PrPres molecular mass. Retrospective molecular studies in France of all available BSE cases older than 8 years old and of part of the other cases identified since the beginning of the exhaustive surveillance of the disease in 20001 allowed to identify 7 H-type BSE cases, among 594 BSE cases that could be classified as classical, L- or H-type BSE. By Western blot analysis of H-type PrPres, we described a remarkable specific feature with antibodies raised against the C-terminal region of PrP that demonstrated the existence of a more C-terminal cleaved form of PrPres (named PrPres#2 ), in addition to the usual PrPres form (PrPres #1). In the unglycosylated form, PrPres #2 migrates at about 14 kDa, compared to 20 kDa for PrPres #1. The proportion of the PrPres#2 in cattle seems to by higher compared to the PrPres#1. Furthermore another PK-resistant fragment at about 7 kDa was detected by some more N-terminal antibodies and presumed to be the result of cleavages of both N- and C-terminal parts of PrP. These singular features were maintained after transmission of the disease to C57Bl/6 mice. The identification of these two additional PrPres fragments (PrPres #2 and 7kDa band) reminds features reported respectively in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome in humans.

http://www.neuroprion.com/pdf_docs/conf ... t_book.pdf

Research Project: Study of Atypical Bse Location: Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock

Project Number: 3625-32000-086-05 Project Type: Specific Cooperative Agreement

Start Date: Sep 15, 2004 End Date: Sep 14, 2009

Objective: The objective of this cooperative research project with Dr. Maria Caramelli from the Italian BSE Reference Laboratory in Turin, Italy, is to conduct comparative studies with the U.S. bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) isolate and the atypical BSE isolates identified in Italy. The studies will cover the following areas: 1. Evaluation of present diagnostics tools used in the U.S. for the detection of atypical BSE cases. 2. Molecular comparison of the U.S. BSE isolate and other typical BSE isolates with atypical BSE cases. 3. Studies on transmissibility and tissue distribution of atypical BSE isolates in cattle and other species.

Approach: This project will be done as a Specific Cooperative Agreement with the Italian BSE Reference Laboratory, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, in Turin, Italy. It is essential for the U.S. BSE surveillance program to analyze the effectiveness of the U.S diagnostic tools for detection of atypical cases of BSE. Molecular comparisons of the U.S. BSE isolate with atypical BSE isolates will provide further characterization of the U.S. BSE isolate. Transmission studies are already underway using brain homogenates from atypical BSE cases into mice, cattle and sheep. It will be critical to see whether the atypical BSE isolates behave similarly to typical BSE isolates in terms of transmissibility and disease pathogenesis. If transmission occurs, tissue distribution comparisons will be made between cattle infected with the atypical BSE isolate and the U.S. BSE isolate. Differences in tissue distribution could require new regulations regarding specific risk material (SRM) removal.

http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/projec ... _NO=408490

Wednesday, February 11, 2009

Atypical BSE North America Update February 2009

Both of the BSE cases ascertained in the US native-born cattle were atypical cases (H-type), which contributed to the initial ambiguity of the diagnosis. 174, 185 In Canada, there have been 2 atypical BSE cases in addition to the 14 cases of the classic UK strain of BSE2: one was the H-type, and the other was of the L-type.198

snip...end

source :

Enhanced Abstract Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association January 1, 2009, Vol. 234, No. 1, Pages 59-72

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy

Jane L. Harman, DVM, PhD; Christopher J. Silva, PhD

http://avmajournals.avma.org/doi/ref/10 ... a.234.1.59

Atypical BSE North America Update February 2009

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2009/0 ... pdate.html

Thursday, April 9, 2009

Docket No. FDA2002N0031 (formerly Docket No. 2002N0273) RIN 0910AF46 Substances Prohibited From Use in Animal Food or Feed; Final Rule: Proposed

http://madcowfeed.blogspot.com/2009/04/ ... ocket.html

please see ;

http://madcowfeed.blogspot.com/2009/04/ ... l#comments

TSS COMMENT SUBMISSION # 5

Docket ID FDA-2002-N-0031 Docket Title Animal Proteins Prohibited in Ruminant Feed Document ID FDA-2002-N-0031-0132 Document Title Substances Prohibited From Use in Animal Food or Feed; Final Rule: Proposed Delay of Effective Date

Completely Edited Version

PRION ROUNDTABLE

2003

page 29

Dr. Linda Detwiler

The UK imports into the US.

There were 496 total, and 173 of the UK imports could have entered the US feed system. People don't like to hear this, but it's possible that one of the UK imports in the US entered the animal feed system and was exported to Canada. That's a possibility, because they import 50% of their feed from the US.

From 1994, we imported 11 million head of cattle from Canada. Most of these were feedlot animals for slaughter, but there were about 500,000 breeding animals. A number of Canada's cull cows were slaughtered here and could have introduced infectivity into our system. Even today we have Canadian imports in the country, breeding animals that were brought in prior to the ban and reside here.

We have feed ban exemptions: plate waste, poultry litter. We still allow that if it comes off a human plate, or if it's trimmings, it can be palletized and fed to ruminants. That might be a small amount, but it could allow spinal cord in certain cuts to be fed back to ruminants. Poultry litter or feather meal could be significant. Poultry is getting quite a bit of ruminant material in the US because it cannot go back to ruminants. Poultry and pigs are getting a substantial amount. Poultry litter is not only what passes through the chicken, but think about how chickens eat. They spill a lot on the floor. That stuff is still allowed to be fed back to cattle. That's a direct break in the ban, except that it's legal. Ruminants are getting ruminant material.

Unfiltered tallow: tallow is a lipid material. However, if it's not filtered, there are protein residues. That's meat and bone meal. That's allowed to be fed, so that's another legal exception where you can feed ruminant meat and bone meal through unfiltered tallow. We don't have an SRM ban and the 40 animals are the ones that if you have the agent, they introduce the most infectivity back into the animal food chain when they're rendered.

What's our on-farm compliance? We really don't know. ...snip...end...Dr. Linda Detwiler

UK EXPORTS OF MBM TO WORLD

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m11g/tab05.pdf

OTHERS

BEEF AND VEAL

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m11f/tab08.pdf

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m11f/tab09.pdf

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m11f/tab10.pdf

LIVE CATTLE

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m11f/tab11.pdf

FATS

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m11g/tab01.pdf

EMBRYOS

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m11g/tab03.pdf

GELATIN ETC

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m11g/tab02.pdf

SEMEN

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m11g/tab04.pdf

MEAT

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m11g/tab05.pdf


USA BSE GBR

http://www.efsa.europa.eu/EFSA/efsa_loc ... 779461.htm

http://www.efsa.europa.eu/EFSA/Scientif ... inary=true

http://www.efsa.europa.eu/EFSA/Scientif ... inary=true

http://www.efsa.europa.eu/EFSA/Scientif ... inary=true

CANADA BSE GBR

http://www.mvo.nl/wetgeving-dierlijk-ve ... 202004.pdf

MEXICO BSE GBR

http://www.mvo.nl/wetgeving-dierlijk-ve ... 202004.pdf



Wednesday, April 16, 2008 MBM, greaves, meat offal, live cattle, imports from UK to USA vs Canada "Three of four possible manufacturers supplying a protein supplement likely fed to the animal could have included meat and bone meal (MBM) as an ingredient in its formulation. One of these manufacturers was able to confirm usage of meat and bone meal in supplements and confirm a source of MBM to be one common to previous BSE investigations."

USA AND CANADA IMPORTS OF UK CATTLE BETWEEN 1981 - 1989

USA = 496

CANADA = 198

*add 14 to 198 as last UK import to Canada, 14 in 1990

http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/sci ... serise.pdf

HERE is another look at all the imports for both the USA and Canada of UK live cattle and greaves exports ;

UK Exports of Live Cattle by Value 1986-96

USA 697 LIVE CATTLE

CANADA 299 LIVE CATTLE

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m11f/tab11.pdf

UK TABLE of Exports of meal of meat and meat offal; greaves 1979 - 1995

USA 24 TONS

CANADA 83 TONS

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m12/tab12.pdf

HOWEVER, my files show 44 tons of greaves for USA. ...TSS

Subject: Re: exports from the U.K. of it's MBM to U.S.??? From: [email protected] Date: Tue, 8 Feb 2000 14:03:16 +0000 To: [email protected] (Receipt Notification Requested) (Non Receipt Notification Requested)

Terry

Meat and bonemeal is not specifically classified for overseas trade purposes. The nearest equivalent is listed as flours and meals of meat or offals (including tankage), unfit for human consumption; greaves. UK exports of this to the US are listed below:

Country Tonnes

1980 1981 12 1982 1983 1984 10 1985 2 1986 1987 1988 1989 20 1990

Data for exports between 1975 and 1979 are not readily available. These can be obtained (at a charge) from data retailers appointed by HM Customs and Excise: BTSL (Tel: 01372 463121) or Abacus (01245 252222). Best wishes Simon Pearsall Overseas trade statistics Stats (C&F)C

============ END...TSS...2008============

P04.27

Experimental BSE Infection of Non-human Primates: Efficacy of the Oral Route

snip...full text ;

http://prionunitusaupdate2008.blogspot. ... l#comments

Sunday, April 12, 2009 r-calf and the USA mad cow problem, don't look, don't find, and then blame Canada

http://prionunitusaupdate2008.blogspot. ... -dont.html

http://prionunitusaupdate2008.blogspot. ... l#comments


FDA2002N0031

r-calf

http://www.regulations.gov/fdmspublic/C ... ntType=pdf


CJD FOUNDATION

http://www.regulations.gov/fdmspublic/c ... 648094d9f9


greetings,

i don't think i interpreted anything about USA mad cow problem, and or USA mad cow feed problem, of which is what this docket was for. in 2007, in one fda warning letter week, two warning letters, where 10,000,000 pounds of suspect banned mad cow feed went into commerce to be fed out. and 2006 was a banner year as well for USA MAD COW FEED that was banned, that went into commerce to be fed out. why does r-calf not mention this $$$ or the failed, flawed, and corrupt 2004 ENHANCED BSE SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM, that was nothing more of another mad cow cover-up. we all know it. OIG said it, in it's own way, and Paul Brown of CDC said it in plain terms. hmmm, no mention there either by r-calf$ that's what the r-calf is all about. they are playing some like a deck of cards.

nothing more of the same, big, big, denial, and that' s what anyone that signed that letter with r-calf ET AL supported, a big denial. ...TSS

Month Number of Tests

Feb 2009 -- 1,891

Jan 2009 -- 4,620

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/newsroom/hot_ ... ults.shtml

unday, April 12, 2009

BSE MAD COW TESTING USA 2009 FIGURES

http://madcowtesting.blogspot.com/2009/ ... gures.html

Saturday, January 24, 2009

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy h-BSE ATYPICAL USA 2008 Annual Report Research Project: Study of Atypical Bse

Location: Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock

2008 Annual Report

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2009/0 ... h-bse.html

Thursday, December 04, 2008 2:37 PM

"we have found that H-BSE can infect humans."

personal communication with Professor Kong. ...TSS

see full text ;

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2009/0 ... pdate.html

MAD COW DISEASE USA DECEMBER 28, 2008 an 8 year review of a failed and flawed policy

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2008/1 ... 008-8.html

Wednesday, February 04, 2009

Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease presenting as severe depression: a case report

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogsp ... ng-as.html

CJD QUESTIONNAIRE USA CWRU AND CJD FOUNDATION

http://cjdquestionnaire.blogspot.com/





Friday, April 17, 2009


REPORT ON THE INVESTIGATION OF THE FIFTEENTH CASE OF BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (BSE) IN CANADA



http://madcowtesting.blogspot.com/2009/ ... eenth.html







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