In the May 2002 Cascade Cattleman, Heather Smith Thomas (of "A Guide to Raising Beef Cattle" fame) has written an article based on the title of this message. I was intrigued with a study that they have been doing. In short length labor, they pulled every calf once the heifer was in labor, and the calf's feet are visible, protruding from the vulva. They pulled the calf whether the heifer needed it or not. The Long-labor group heifers were only pulled in EXTREME situations. The short labor group of heifers bred back at a thirteen percent increase. I thought you would want to know. ALSO... the calves gainmed more rapidly between birth and weaning. I wonder how that would work with a three or four year old cow having her second or third calf. The article on a whole was on par with all of Heather Smith Thomas' writing.... very good and easy to understand.